Encyclopedia of wood species
Quality, durability and aesthetic properties of parquet flooring depend first of all on the choice of wood species.
For parquet production about 300 wood species are used. Only hard wood species are fit for parquet. Main criteria of wood value are:
- solidity (ability of wood to resist to destruction under the influence of mechanical loads);
- stability (property that shows degree and speed of changes of wood dimensions during changes of air humidity);
- durability (it is estimated in years according to wood lifetime when contacting with soil);
- unique beauty of decor.
It should be mentioned that wood qualities depend on conditions of growth, age and wood humidity.
It is quite difficult to orientate at timber market as one wood species can have several names. Encyclopedia contains information about main characteristics of wood species used in parquet flooring. Encyclopedia helps to make the right choice when creating the interior.
Wood hardness, solidity and stability are the most valuable technical characteristics for parquet production.
Hardness – ability of wood to resist to penetration of solid matters: the harder the wood is, the slower it is worn out and consequently parquet durability is higher. The encyclopedia contains information about hardness according to Brinell (N/mm2). Wood hardness influences parquet durability, resistance to strokes of falling objects, wear-resistance and scratch-resistance. Hard wood species include birch, beech, maple, ash.
Density – correlation of wood mass to its volume (kg/m3). There is close connection between solidity and density: the heavier the wood is, the more solid it is. It should be noted that wood that grow in this country has fine-grain structure due to short vegetative period, that is why its density and solidity are higher than of the same wood specie growing in Europe. The most solid wood species are beech, maple, pear tree.
Stability is presented in the table in relative units: 5 – absolutely stable (wood does not change its form even if the drops of air humidity are great); 4 – stable (wood practically does not change its form if the drops of air humidity are not great); 3 – relatively stable (wood slightly changes its form if the drops of air humidity are not great); 2 – medium stable (wood considerably changes its form if the drops of air humidity are not great); 1 – not stable (wood considerably changes its form if the drops of air humidity are not great).
Oak is considered classic and optimal variant regarding its performance characteristics: the golden mean regarding hardness and density, high resistance to moisture impact.
Place of origin and wood abundance influence parquet price. At present exotic wood species enjoy universal esteem at parquet market. Exotic wood species have more saturated colour (red, green, blue, violet and black) in comparison with Russian wood species. Colour of Russian wood is mainly yellow, ochreous, red-brown, brown.
Below are the wood species that are often used in parquet flooring: